The Seven Steps To VoIP

Let’s talk about the seven steps to a successful implementation of VoIP in your personal and professional life. The VoIP phone, in a nutshell, rules the world of business communication. With a handful of features, VoIP phones can help you to do everything you want from a highly advanced communication system. To make sure you can handle the tips and tricks to master your VoIP phone, you need to learn about the operating system of…

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Web Communication for Enterprises

With the impending death of PSTN, and the abundant features available in VoIP and IP based communication, more and businesses are switching over to IP based communication. What we are talking about here is just voice based calling. But, IP based communications is much more than that. It is large amalgam of voice, video and computer and data integration. Let us understand what this entails. At the heart of web communications is Unified Communications (UC).…

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What Are The Features That IP Phone Carry?

There is a special category of phones that is exclusively used with the VoIP telephony systems. These phones are known as IP phones or SIP phones (where SIP is a protocol). As a user, you will find the IP phones to be similar in every way to your PSTN or POTS phone, but the only difference is that they have an internally integrated ATA. These phones are completely equipped to be used with VOIP telephony…

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5 Reasons Why You Should Be Videoconferencing

Remote working arrangements are quickly becoming more common among businesses. Remote workers work from home or from other locations besides the home office, and can even work in different states. There are several benefits of being a remote worker, but it can seem isolated at times without the face to face contact of being in an office setting. However, video-conferencing is a great way to solve that issue. This article will discuss five reasons why…

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Structured Cabling Defined Part 3 – Network and Security

 

In August and September we introduced the concept of structured cabling, its importance and the types of cables that are used. The fastest, of course, are fiber optic cables that can transport more data than we can ever use.

In this concluding part, we will look at networking, standards, and some security concepts.

A Bit of History on Networks

Today, interoperability, and connection between computers are taken for granted. But it was not always so. Some 40 years ago, the concept of physically connecting computers to each other started in earnest in the labs of universities such as CalTech and large companies such as IBM, DEC, etc. The major breakthrough came from the Xerox labs at Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). Robert Metcalfe was asked to build a networking system to make it easy for everyone of use a printer. The issue was that PARC had hundreds of computers when the general norm was just one or two.

In 1976, Metcalfe and his assistant David Boggs published a paper titled, ‘Ethernet: Distributed Packet-Switching For Local Computer Networks’. In 1979, Metcalfe left Xerox to successfully convince IBM, Digital Equipment, Intel, and Xerox to work together to promote Ethernet as a standard. Today his efforts have made Ethernet an industry standard and the most widely installed network in the world.

Once of the first companies to successfully sell networking as a product cum service was Novell. In 1983, they introduced NetWare as a network operating system that had a star topology with a file server acting as a router for all data transfer. This supported the then popular CP/M as well as the new MS-DOS from Microsoft. In 1993, Novell kind of killed itself by introducing Network Directory Services that did away with the need for a file server. Microsoft introduced Active Directory, and this completely killed the need for Novell products or services.

Because NetWare used the concept of file sharing instead of disk sharing, it had 90% market share between 1980 and 1990s. In evolved over a period of time to running databases, email, web and other services.

What are Protocols?

Novell started the run of NetWare by creating it’s own protocol called IPX. Over a period of time, NetWare started supporting TCP/IP and Appletalk. Today TCP/IP is the global standard for networking and is used by the Internet also.

TCP/IP was born around the same time when Metcalf published his paper on the Ethernet. In 1983, the Department of Defence wanted to connect some 400 odd computers across companies, government agencies, research bodies and other institutions. The network was called ‘ARPANet. Since the 400 odd computers were from different companies, the network had to reckon with multiple operating systems, and different file types. The easiest way was to create a transport mechanism that could handle this variety, and leave the file and data conversion to other software. Thus was born TCP/IP.

TCP/IP stands for Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. It is a mechanism, using which, data is moved from one computer to another. TCP/IP has two major parts – TCP and IP.

The transport control protocol decides how data is moved from one place to another. It first accepts data of any size and type. It then breaks the data down to smaller chunks. These chunks are called segments, and the process is called segmentation. These segments are wrapped in a standard data structure called packets. The packet, in addition to the original data, also contains some additional information about the sender, the receiver, and data that can be used by the receiver to validate the data received. If the validation fails, the receiver will instruct the sender to resend the data. If it succeeds, the receiver will ask for the next data packet. Once all the packets have arrived, it will be assembled into a duplicate of the original data that had left from the sender’s computer.

The Internet Protocol is like a traffic controller. Each packet that is sent has two host addresses – one of the sender and the other of the receiver. This is used by the gateway to make sure the packet reaches the right computer.

TCP/IP works on the basis of a client/server model. Every computer connected to the network is a host. A centralised machine that routes the data packet acts as a server.

There are variations of TCP/IP that are used for specific purposes. All these use TCP/IP as a basic transport mechanism, but may do a specific job. Some examples are HTTP that is used for browsing, FTP that is used for file transfer, Telnet that is used for remote connectivity, and SMTP that delivers your email.

OSI and Network Layers

All networking including Ethernet and TCP/IP have been developed on an OSI model that refers to Open Systems Interconnection. Essentially, OSI has seven layers – Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application. Each of these layers speaks only to a layer above or below it. Each of these layers executes a specific function. TCP/IP, Ethernet and other protocols work at various levels of OSI depending upon the need. 

The Physical Layer is at the lowest level or first layer. This has all the physical aspects of networking such as cabling, connectors, modems, repeaters, routers, etc.

The Data Link Layer identifies computer on the network, organizes the physical layers into logical groups, detects and corrects errors, and controls the data flow.

The Network Layer’s main objective is to move data. In converts logical address to physical address, and take the shortest path to the receiver.

The Transport Layer ensures the data reaches without errors. It works on the error correction algorithm built by the Data Link Layer. It also creates the data packets we spoke about above.

The Session Layer establishes and maintains connection between two nodes or hosts on a network. It re-establishes connection if gets broken for some reason. The Session Layer, because it determines who can talk to whom, is also called a ‘traffic cop’ of Networks.

The Presentation Layer acts as a translator between the application and the network. It converts data into a format that the network can understand, looks after data encryption, and manages passwords.

The final layer is the Application Layer. This does NOT refer to applications such as Word of Excel. Rather it refers to applications that provide services such as file transfer, file management, and email management.

Network Security

As an organization or as a user, you don’t want others to have access to your emails or your data. What you have to protect are usability, reliability, integrity, and safety of you network.

At first, let us understand the threats and then see what needs to be done for various environments of usage.

There are a multitude of threats to any network. The most common are:

• Viruses, worms, malware
• Spyware and adware
• Zero-hour attacks
• Hacker attacks
• DOS or denial of service
• Data interception and data theft
• Identity theft

I have heard of these. Why would I have to be worried about these and how do I handle them?

For an organization, data is critical. You not only have your own data, you have data of your clients, vendors, employees as well as others. Your business partners expect you to safeguard what they gave you. You will get the trust of your business partners; will have better employee morale, and avoid costs that may be incurred if your business is disrupted.

At an individual level, all of us keep a lot of our personal stuff on the Internet, use the Net for financial and business transactions. If some steals your id, he could potentially siphon off your hard earned assets.

Security needs and ways to handle them are different depending upon who you are what your usage of the network is.

At a personal level, an anti-virus software, a firewall, and safe keeping of passwords are the basic security requirements. If you are using a wireless LAN, do not use the id that came with the router. Create your own. Have a robust password for your router. Do not broadcast the SSID of your router. Enable MAC address filtering so you know what computers are connected anytime. Use static IP address for your network devices.

For a small or medium business, first install a strong firewall and have a powerful anti-virus on all your computers. For logging-in, assign strong passwords that are changed regularly. Implement clear employee guidelines about usage of computers and network access. All employee log-ins and Net access must be monitored regularly and analysed on a frequent basis. Have a network analyser that warns your network administrator whenever a suspicious activity happens. If you have multiple offices, set up a VPN, or a Virtual Private Network. Have a strong backup policy for recovery of all data.

Larger companies would need all we described before, a very strong policy with punishment on the misuse of the network, and constant monitoring of the network. Multiple layers of physical security may also be implemented making it difficult for unauthorised people to go near your computers. Authentication can be dynamic with the system generating a new password for every log-in with the password being deactivated the minute you log-out, or even if you do not use the system for a certain time.

We do hope we have been able to enlighten you on networks, how they work, and how we have to be safe. Today a business cannot be run without computers or the Net. A few precautions will enable you to enjoy the experience and focus on your business.

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Understanding CCTV Cameras & Surveillance Systems

 

Given the troubled times we live in, it is always a good idea to protect your establishment. Your business or home may be situated in a high-risk area, and this is going to cause you to look for stable and robust security measures. When it comes to situation like this, you also need to have a look at CCTV. There are CCTV cameras everywhere these days, especially in businesses that deal heavily with the public. Security surveillance is used to protect both the employees of the business and the customers that the company deals with, so this is not an unusual stance to take. Nowadays, a significant portion of homeowners are also installing surveillance technology for their own homes. A good CCTV camera is not difficult to find, but you do need to be careful when it comes to shopping for them. If you want to get a security camera, you have to take a close look at what you need.

The Quality of the Camera

If you are business owner, then you need a high-quality camera that will provide you with a clear image. Cheaper cameras will often provide fuzzy images and may not get all of the information. If there is a burglar in your store, you will want to know what his or her face looks like. If the camera is able to provide you with a clear image then you will be able to use this image in order to prosecute the individual.

Data Storage

Businesses especially need to make sure that they have a secure storage of the data that has been captured by these cameras. You will have to take a look at the choices available when it comes to the different storage options. DVRs or digital video recorders have the capacity to record every second of what your camera is seeing. These are tagged with date and time. Generally, DVRs store the video on their hard disks. Since hard disks do have a limitation, a backup is essential. Backups can be done of optical media such as DVDs, or on tapes. The quantum of backup you keep depend upon the environment and the type of business you have. Check with the local police station, and they will tell you what you need to do. Most homes can make do with about a week to fortnight of recording, as long as there is no untoward incident. It may be worthwhile to random view these recording to see if there is any untoward incident. If there has been a burglary in your neighborhood, it is good idea to see the recording for a few days before and after that incident.

Modern surveillance systems also provide ‘cloud based surveillance’. This means that you camera sends all it video directly to the service provider who stores the recoding on his hard disks. This will costs you a monthly fee, and will cameras or equipment that can work with the Internet. You also need a 24/7 Internet connection.

Home versus Business

Make sure to get the right camera for your specific needs. A higher quality camera is often going to be used in business and retail environments. In cases like this, it is also a good idea to put up a sign informing people that they are being recorded on a camera. When you put up a sign like this, you will be able to avoid any legal issues that may arise. Of course, legal issues can depend on where you happen to live at the time.

Camera Types

Cameras are evolving with technology. From analog and digital cameras, we now have wireless cameras and IP cameras. Though essentially they all do the same job, these variations refer to the way the video images are transmitted. Wireless cameras can transmit all images on your wireless LAN, and would need just power cables to be attached. We also have battery powered cameras, but that will mean the hassle to checking the battery condition regularly. IP cameras take the concept of wireless to the next step. They have a fixed IP address. With software installed on your PC or smart phone, you can log into the IP address and view the video capture from any part of the globe. All you need is an Internet connection for both the camera and your PC/smart phone.

Go Shopping

Even though you are looking for a quality piece of equipment, this does not mean that you have to spend a lot of money. There are a lot of deals that you can find if you decide to go shopping around. Always make sure to look at the specifications that each camera has before you decide to sign anything. Make sure it is matched well to the other surveillance equipment you are getting. See if there is a warranty as well. You do not want to end up spending more money than you have to when it comes to your security system at home or at work.

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Importance of Video Camera Surveillance in a Workplace

 

Security is an issue for a lot of businesses, especially if you happen to own a restaurant or a retail shop. Most of the time, you don’t have to worry about your employees. Though it may not always be true, there will usually be a sense of responsibility among employees. Employees are usually going to want to protect their jobs and make sure that the business is running as it should. But, customers can sometimes be a problem. And then you have the irresponsible vandals who enjoy creating trouble. To protect yourself from all these, proper surveillance is necessary to ensure that things are running as they should. A number of different surveillance systems are available nowadays for people who want to ensure that their businesses are well protected. All you need to do is find the right one.

Get The Right Equipment

Installing surveillance cameras is easy, but when you install them you need to find the right angles. If you have a building that has a lot of twists and turns in the corridors and rooms, you will end up spending a lot more money on different cameras to ensure that you cover all angles. Of course, you do not have to set up surveillance in every single part of the building. A lot of the time, it is a good idea to put cameras at just the entrances and exits. This means that you will have a digital record of every single person who came in and went out of the building. As an added safety, you will need to ensure that corridors also have the right cameras set up in case you have long and dark corridors where someone could hide.

Getting good quality cameras is another thing to consider. Most people will be able to have a look at the choices when it comes to finding decent quality online. There are a lot of security firms who will be able to send you information on the different models that they store. When you are looking through the models, make sure to choose one that will provide you with a clear image and last for a long time. Security is something that all companies should invest in heavily, especially if you are in retail. Don’t cringe on the cameras. After all, a blurred picture is of no value to either you or the police. You cannot catch a perpetrator if you cannot recognize him, can you?

Collecting the Evidence with CCTV and Surveillance Cameras

For those working in retail or in public places, there may come a time when you will need to have evidence against a person who committed a crime on your premises. Having video surveillance will make this a lot easier. All you will need to do is submit the videotape to the police and they will be able to have a look at it. Sound recording devices are also a good idea, although they can end up being a bit more expensive.

The Law and Surveillance Cams

If you plan on putting up surveillance cameras then it is a good idea to warn your customers. This will mean that everyone is aware that they are being watched and you don’t have to worry about going against any laws. Put up a sign in a prominent place where everyone who comes in can read it and understand what is happening.

Surveillance in your place of business is there for the protection of your business, your employees and your customers. It is therefore a worthwhile system to invest in.

 

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Enhance your Business through Unified Communication

UC or Unified communication is the technology that integrates a group of communication devices on a single platform and redirects text, emails and voice messages on a real time basis to the closest device of the recipient. Thus, if a user receives an email then it would be delivered to his/her desktop, smartphone or PDA. On the other hand if he/she receives a voice mail then it would be sent to his/her smartphone or laptop. A complete unified communication system lets the user send information from one device and allows the recipient to receive the same on another. Thus the message or information does not remain undelivered. 

unified communicationBusinesses employing UC can enjoy a bouquet of advantages in the form of an improved work flow, higher productivity and lower cost of operation. Project management too would become an easy task by using collaboration and productivity tools. These can be achieved even when the users are located thousands of miles away from one another. Some of the tools that are used in a unified communication system are VoIP calls, instant messaging and video conferencing. Companies can use their unified communication to set their own communication goals and break from the confines of the office premises.

Given below are some of the positive impacts of Unified communication:

Better and more contact with clients

A businesses would be able to maintain better and more contacts with their clients. The clients would be able to receive and send information more frequently and to the concerned department on a real time basis. They will not be required to wait for long hours to get a problem solved. Thus, the customer care or sales departments will be able to cater to large numbers of customers within a small time. Not only calls but executives can even arrange video conference to speak with the client as if you are actually present in a meeting hall.

Increased efficiency and additional productivity

With introduction of UCs, companies can expect to increase their efficiently and productivity. Employees would be able to coordinate better with different types of UC tools at their disposal. Project management would become a lot easier as the unified communication architecture can even integrate the CRM and ERP systems.

Delivery of accurate information and data to clients

Clients can expect to get accurate data and information from the companies that have unified communication. The system allows the synchronization of various devices on the same platform. For example, during a conversation of a vide call, you can allow the client to see specific screens of data as it is being processed by your ERP system.

Availability and enhancing customer confidence

Unified communication has made it easier for company executives to remain in touch with their clients 24×7. Thus an executive of the company would be virtually always at the service of their customers. This would help to build confidence among the customers. The goodwill of the company would also receive a boost with the increase in the number of satisfied customers. Customers would also be able to access the video conference facility to get into a one-to-one interaction with the concerned personnel.

No additional costs

Companies will not be required to spend a fortune trying to get new customers. The unified communication system would give them a global presence. Thus, new customers can be reached with minimum budget. Companies would be able to hire employees who would cater to new markets even if the company does not have a physical presence in a particular region or country.

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Structured Cabling Defined Part 2 – Types of Cables

Last month we introduced to you the concept of structured cabling and how it is important in today’s environment where the Internet is used not just for computers and data. VoIP and IP Communication also use your internal cabling and the Internet.

In a computer only network, data transfer between computers is done with trailing checks that is used by the receiving station to test the validity of the data received. If what is called ‘checksum’ returns an error, the receiving station will reject the data, and send a signal to the sending station to resend the data. All this is done extremely fast and you will not even notice it.

When you are using the same network for voice and video, everything happens in real time and there is no ‘send me the data again’ concept. What you will see in video are blips and interference, and what you will hear in voice is noise and maybe inaudible or incomprehensible voice signals. We do not want that do we? So it is important that every part of the network connectivity works impeccably.

One of the important components of a network is the cable used. Let us now understand what a cable is and how to choose one for your requirement.

Networking & Cables

Networking helps to connect different end points and transfer data. Within an office or a building, cable is the most common medium in which information is transmitted from one network device to another one. Different types of cables are used in a LAN. A particular network may use a single type of cable while other network may deploy variety of cables. The type of cable required for a network depends upon its topology, protocol and size. Success of any computer networking depends upon the structure and cabling of the total system.

Types of cables:

Coaxial Cable

This type of cable has been in use for a long time, and is slowly losing it’s relevance. In this type of cable, there is a single copper conductor at the center. A plastic layer between the braided metal shield and the center conductor provides insulation. This metal shield is useful as it blocks any interference from outside fluorescent lights, other computers, or any motors. Coaxial cable can work across long distances and have been used by TV companies to carry their signals to your home. There are 2 types of coaxial cable which are normally used, namely – thin coaxial cable and thick coaxial. In terms of networks, thin cables were used in what were called thinnet, and while the thicker cables were used in thicknet.

In thicknet, the conductor diameter is 2.17 mm. Such cables are used in 10Base5 networks. The 10 refers to 10 Mbps and the 5 refers to a maximum length of 500 meters.

In thinnet, conductor diameter is 0.9 mm. This cable is used in 10Base2 networks. The 10 refers to 10 Mbps and the 2 refers to maximum length of 200 meters.

Coaxial cables are connected using a BNC connector

Twisted Pair (TP) cables

Because coaxial cables were slow and were unwieldy, it became difficult to install them in local area networks and inside server rooms. As network connections were speeding up, cable manufacturers went back to a concept invented by Alexander Graham Bell – the concept of twisted pair cables. In this type of cable, two conductors of single circuit are twisted together for cancelling out external interferences such as EMI.

One of the main advantages of a twisted pair is that it is very thin and extremely flexible. In highly congested networks, you can run more lines through the same ducts as compared to coaxial cables. And, of course, because of higher bandwidth, twisted pair move data at much higher speeds. Twisted pair cables are grouped into categories based on their usage and speed.

The various grouping, bandwidth, applications, and speeds are shown below.

Name

Type

Bandwidth

Applications

Speed

Level 1

 

0.4 MHz

Telephone and modem lines

1 Mbps

Level 2

UTP

4 MHz

Older terminal systems, e.g. IBM 3270

4 Mbps

Cat3

UTP

16 MHz

10BASE-T and 100BASE-T4 Ethernet[7]

16 Mbps

Cat4

UTP

20 MHz

16 Mbit/s[7] Token Ring

20 Mbps

Cat5

UTP

100 MHz

100BASE-TX & 1000BASE-T Ethernet[7]

100 Mbps

Cat5e

UTP

100 MHz

100BASE-TX & 1000BASE-T Ethernet[7]

1000 Mbps

Cat6

UTP

500 MHz

10GBASE-T Ethernet

10,000 Mbps

Class F

S/FTP

600 MHz

10GBASE-T Ethernet

10 Gbps

Class Fa

 

1000 MHz

Telephone, CCTV, 1000BASE-TX in the same cable. 10GBASE-TEthernet.

40 Gbps

We have introduced a new concept here and that is called bandwidth. What is a bandwidth and should I worry about it? Actually no, though, there is no harm in understanding the term and showing off to someone in a party. To understand the term, let us understand how a copper wire works. A copper wire carries data from one end using electrical currents. In electrical parlance, a bandwidth is the width of the range of frequencies that a signal uses. The frequency of all signals is measured in hertz (Hz) which is the number of cycles of change per second. A voice signal has a bandwidth of roughly 3,000 Hz or 6 kHz. A video signal’s bandwidth is 6 million Hz or 6 MHz. So the higher the bandwidth of the cable the more the data it can carry.

There are two broad categories of twisted pair cable – unshielded and shielded.

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable

Unshielded twisted pair is the most commonly used in telephone cables, computer networks, and even in video applications such as security cameras. These cables are typically made with copper wires measured as 22 or 24 AWG with insulation typically made from polyethylene (FEP) and the total package covered in a slight hard polyethylene jacket.

The Cat5 cable which is the most common form of cable used for computer networking is made of UTP cables. UTP cables are generally used in short lengths such as inside a building, or within a server room.

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cable – UTP cable is susceptible to radio and electrical frequency interference. Though more expensive, Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cables are a better option. Shielded Twisted pair cables can also be useful in extending maximum distance of cables. Shielded cable is available in 3 configurations:-

  • Every pair of wire is separately shielded with foil
  • All wires having a braid shield inside the wire jacket
  • Each individual pair having a shield, besides having another around the whole group of wires

Fiber Optic Cable

Another type of cable is Fiber Optic. It consists of a centre glass core surrounded by numerous layers of protective material. Instead of using electricity to carry signals, it used light pulses to carry signals. Because of this basic difference, fiber optic cables are completely immune to any electro-magnetic interference. It is hence the ideal cabling solution for certain environment where interferences are prevalent and cannot be avoided. It is also immune to moisture and lightning.
There are 2 types of fiber optic cables available – single-mode and multi mode. Single mode has one narrow glass core with a core to cladding diameter ratio of 9/125 microns. A single beam of light pulse is used in this case. This is more reliable and can be used for long distances.

Multi-mode has larger inner core and allows multiple modes or pulses of light to traverse at the same time. This enables more data to pass through at the same time, though over short distances. The core to cladding ratio is usually between 50/125 to 62.5/125.

Fiber optic cables are generally more expensive in comparison to other options, but carry a much larger amount of data at very high speeds. Just to give you a sample, depending upon construction and other parameters, a fiber optic cable can carry data between 15 Trillion bits per second to 1.05 Peta bits per seconds. The physical limits of fiber optical have not yet been reached. In a recent experiment in UK, scientists were able to transmit data at 10 terabytes per second. To give you an idea, a regular fiber optic cable can carry 90,000 TV channels simultaneously without any loss! Wow!

Next month we will look at other aspects of networking such as standards, vertical and horizontal cabling, security, etc.

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Structured Cabling Defined

Whether you are planning to build a small or big company, it is vital that you also include in your planning the data and communication network that will be playing vital role in connecting and organizing your whole business. A data and network communication is made possible through cablings technology and innovations. Structured cabling is building or campus telecommunications cabling infrastructure that consists of a number of standardized smaller elements called subsystems. This structure is composed of different types of standard cables that will be the pathway of voice and data, and the overall telecommunication network.

Structured Cabling Elgin

Installation of cables is not as easy as connecting a cable to a wall socket. The complexity includes choosing the right and most effective cables that promotes high performance level and accident free operations. A trusted company should be able to recognize the different kinds of cables that is most suited to the need, software and the lay-out of the of the equipment as planned.

Structured cabling must be able to provide the following to meet the demands your company.

  • Provide a safe and secure fiber optic network
  • Offer reliable internet access
  • Support multiple applications
  • Sustain the need of the customer
  • Continue the rate of the investment through innovative technological upgrades

On the other hand, every structured cabling system is unique. This is due to variations in:

  • The architectural structure of the building, which houses the cabling installation
  • The cable and connection products
  • The function of the cabling installation
  • The types of equipment the cabling installation will support — present and future
  • The configuration of an already installed system
  • Customer requirements
  • Manufacturer warranties

Standard Cables Used in Structured Cabling:

  • CAT5. The most basic type of network cable is Cat 5 and it comes in two varieties. SCTP or Screened Twisted Pair which is mostly used in Europe and UTP or Unshielded Twisted Pair which is what is commonly used in the United States. The difference between the two is that SCTP has an extra layer of shielding to protect from interference. Solid Cat 5 is more rigid, and the better choice if data needs to be transmitted over a long distance, while Stranded Cat 5 is very flexible and most likely to be used as patch cable. Cat 5 cable can support 10 or 100 Mbps Ethernet, and has a capability of up to 100MHz.
  • CAT6. The most advanced cable of the three is Category 6. As the numbering entails Cat 6 cable is the latest and best performing version of structured cabling available. Just like Cat 5 and Cat 5e, Category 6 cable is typically made up of four twisted pairs of copper wire, but its capabilities far exceed those of other cable types because of one particular structural difference: a longitudinal separator.

The future of structured cabling promises better network installation and telecommunication as well as voice and data performance. Every year, new types of cables are invented, that also means better ways in enhancing and developing structured cables in each company.

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